Gluten- Free and Paleo Food Substitutions

Gluten- Free Flour Substitutions

Gluten free flour- 1 cup flour*= (by weight…)
1 cup millet flour
7/8cup buckwheat flour
3/4 cup brown rice flour
3/4 cup chickpea flour or other bean flour like sorghum
7/8 cup amaranth flour
1 cup cassava flour
1 cup almond flour (paleo)
1 cup coconut flour (paleo)
* Depends on what you are trying to do with the flour…
Thickeners- 1 tbsp wheat flour=
1 1/2 tbsp arrowroot (paleo)*
1/2 tbsp cornstarch*
1 tbsp tapioca
1 tbsp potato flour or potato starch
1 tbsp rice flour
* best added at the end of cooking time
Try to avoid commercial baking powder as it contains cornstarch, gluten and aluminum. Buy aluminum free baking powder or make your own using 1 teaspoon baking soda and 2 teaspoons cream of tartar. Use 1 teaspoon of this mixture for each cup of flour called for in the recipe.



Missing that special unique binding quality that gluten provides? Many people use gums in their baking. We don't recommend Xanthum/Xanthan gum.

Double the amount of guar gum in any recipe that calls for xanthum. Or try these alternatives:



For most baking and cooking purposes you can subsititute 1 cup of milk with 1 cup of 

  • rice milk
  • hemp milk 
  • almond milk
  • coconut milk or
  • goat's milk (if tolerated –  make sure flavor profile matches what your baking/cooking)
  • unpasteurized grass-fed milk, if tolerated (primal)


For most baking and cooking purposes you can subsititute 1 cup of buttermilk with 1 cup of

  • Cultured coconut milk
  • Mix 3 teaspoons lemon juice or apple cider vinegar with dairy-free milk and let sit for 15 minutes


For most baking and cooking purposes, you can replace 1 cup of yogurt with1 cup of

  • coconut yogurt
  • goat's yogurt (if tolerated)


For most baking and cooking purposes you can substitute 1 stick of butter (= 8 Tablespoons = 1/2 cup = 4 ounces) with 8 Tablespoons of

  • margarine (try Earth's Balance Soy-free buttery spread)
  • shortening (try Spectrum's sustainably harvested palm oil shortening)
  • vegetable oil
  • or 6 Tablespoons of coconut oil
  • grass-fed butter, if tolerated (primal) 


If you cannot tolerate soy in addition to dairy, there are soy-free and dairy-free products on the market, such as SoDelicious' coconut milk coffee creamer, Earth Balance's soy-free, dairy-free margarine and Daiya soy-free, dairy-free cheese. 

Additionally, you can use coconut aminos in place of soy sauce for Asian-inspired dishes.


For most baking and cooking purposes you can subsititute

  • Ener-G Egg Replacer (use according to directions)
  • 1 egg = 1 tablespoon ground flaxseed or ground chia seeds + 3 tablespoons water (let sit for a few minutes until thickened)
  • 1 egg = 3/4 teaspoons Ener-G Egg Replacer, 1 tablespoon warm water, 3/4 teaspoon baking powder, 1 1/2 tablespoon unsweetened applesauce


For most baking and cooking purposes, you can substitute 1 cup of sugar for
  • 1/2 cup honey
  • 1/2 cup maple syrup
  • 1/2 cup molasses
  • 1/2 cup fruit puree
  • 1 tsp ground stevia
  • 1/3 cup of agave
If the recipe is too dry you may need to add some water or juice, especially if you have taken out eggs as well.
If using in recipes for texture, such as granola bars, try substituting
  • coconut chips 
  • pumpkin seeds
  • slivered almonds

If using in recipes as a thickener, refer to above section on thickeners

Rice, grains or high-carb starches as a side dish

  • Cauliflower rice [link]
  • carrot-parsnip mash
  • fennel bulb-celeric mash
  • sauteed plantains